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Learn 100 Academic English Exam Words

Updated: Jan 10

Hello students! Today we're covering a diverse range of 100 academic English exam words, each accompanied by clear definitions and illustrative example sentences to aid in your understanding.

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Here's a list of 100 academic English words along with their definitions and example sentences. The words in this list are in the same order that they appear in the video lesson. Please enjoy and study hard!

Analyze - examine methodically and in detail the constitution or structure of something, typically for purposes of explanation and interpretation. Example sentence: The scientist analyzed the data to draw meaningful conclusions.

Evaluate - assess or appraise the value, quality, importance, or extent of something. Example sentence: Teachers often evaluate students' understanding through various assessments.

Cite - refer to (a passage, book, or author) as evidence for or justification of an argument or statement. Example sentence: Make sure to cite your sources to avoid plagiarism in your research paper.

Comprehensive - complete; including all or nearly all elements or aspects. Example sentence: The textbook provides a comprehensive overview of the subject matter.

Hypothesis - a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation. Example sentence: The scientist formulated a hypothesis before conducting the experiment.

Infer - deduce or conclude information from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements. Example sentence: From the results, we can infer that there is a correlation between the two variables.

Contrast - compare in order to show unlikeness or differences; note the opposite natures, purposes, etc. Example sentence: The essay contrasted the economic policies of two different countries.

Illustrate - provide (a book, newspaper, etc.) with pictures. Example sentence: The textbook is well-illustrated to help students understand complex concepts.

Elaborate - involving many careful details; thorough and complicated in design or planning. Example sentence: The professor asked the students to elaborate on their responses during the discussion.

Delineate - describe or portray (something) precisely. Example sentence: The map delineates the boundaries of the historical site.

Enumerate - mention (a number of things) one by one. Example sentence: The speaker enumerated the key points of the presentation.

Formulate - create or prepare methodically; devise. Example sentence: The team worked together to formulate a strategic plan for the project.

Integrate - combine (one thing) with another to form a whole. Example sentence: The software is designed to integrate seamlessly with existing systems.

Deduce - arrive at a conclusion by reasoning; draw as a logical conclusion. Example sentence: Based on the evidence, we can deduce that the theory is valid.

Inferential - involving or relating to inference. Example sentence: The statistics course covers inferential methods for drawing conclusions from data.

Validate - check or prove the accuracy of something. Example sentence: The experiment was conducted to validate the hypothesis.

Corroborate - confirm or give support to (a statement, theory, or finding). Example sentence: The witness's testimony helped to corroborate the suspect's alibi.

Deductive - characterized by or based on the inference of particular instances from a general law. Example sentence: Sherlock Holmes is known for his deductive reasoning skills.

Inductive - characterized by the inference of general laws from particular instances. Example sentence: Scientists often use inductive reasoning to form hypotheses based on observed patterns.

Rationale - a set of reasons or a logical basis for a course of action or belief. Example sentence: The professor explained the rationale behind the research design.

Critique - a detailed analysis and assessment of something, especially a literary, philosophical, or artistic work. Example sentence: The art critic wrote a thoughtful critique of the new exhibition.

Prerequisite - a thing that is required as a prior condition for something else to happen or exist. Example sentence: Completing the basic courses is a prerequisite for the advanced level class.

Concise - giving much information clearly and in a few words; brief but comprehensive. Example sentence: The instructions were clear and concise, making it easy to follow.

Constitute - be (a part) of a whole. Example sentence: These factors constitute the main components of the study.

Articulate - express (an idea or feeling) fluently and coherently. Example sentence: The speaker was able to articulate complex concepts in a way that everyone could understand.

Debate - a formal discussion on a particular topic in a public meeting or legislative assembly, in which opposing arguments are put forward. Example sentence: The candidates engaged in a heated debate on economic policies.

Convey - communicate (a message or information). Example sentence: The presenter used visuals to convey the main points of the presentation.

Implement - put (a decision, plan, agreement, etc.) into effect. Example sentence: The company decided to implement a new software system to improve efficiency.

Equate - consider (one thing) to be the same as or equivalent to another. Example sentence: Some people equate success with financial wealth.

Intervene - come between so as to prevent or alter a result or course of events. Example sentence: The teacher had to intervene to stop the argument between the students.

Criterion - a principle or standard by which something may be judged or decided. Example sentence: The selection committee used specific criteria to evaluate the applicants.

Rationalize - attempt to explain or justify (one's own or another's behavior or attitude) with logical, plausible reasons, even if these are not true or appropriate. Example sentence: The employee tried to rationalize the mistake by blaming it on external factors.

Contradict - be in conflict with. Example sentence: The witness's testimony seemed to contradict the evidence presented earlier.

Emerge - become apparent, important, or prominent. Example sentence: New patterns of behavior began to emerge as the study progressed.

Underlie - be the cause or basis of (something). Example sentence: Cultural differences may underlie misunderstandings in cross-cultural communication.

Advocate - publicly support or recommend a particular cause or policy. Example sentence: The organization advocates for environmental conservation.

Alleviate - make (suffering, deficiency, or a problem) less severe. Example sentence: The medication is designed to alleviate pain and discomfort.

Denote - be a sign of; indicate. Example sentence: The red traffic light denotes that it is not safe to proceed.

Emphasize - give special importance or prominence to (something) in speaking or writing. Example sentence: The teacher emphasized the need for active participation in class discussions for better understanding.

Constituents - the essential elements or people that form a larger entity.

Example sentence: In a democracy, politicians are responsive to the concerns of their constituents, aiming to address the needs of the community they represent.

Analogous - comparable in certain respects, typically in a way that makes clearer the nature of the things compared. Example sentence: The function of the heart in the circulatory system is analogous to a pump.

Meticulous - showing great attention to detail; very careful and precise. Example sentence: The artist was meticulous in every stroke, creating a masterpiece.

Empirical - based on, concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic. Example sentence: The scientist conducted empirical research to gather concrete evidence.

Mitigate - make less severe, serious, or painful. Example sentence: Planting trees can help mitigate the effects of climate change by absorbing carbon dioxide.

Denounce - To publicly criticize or condemn something or someone strongly.

Example sentence: The activist used the press conference to denounce the unjust policies and call for immediate change.

Corollary - a proposition that follows from (and is often appended to) one already proved.

Example sentence: The corollary to increased demand for a product is an increase in production.

Circumvent - find a way around (an obstacle).

Example sentence: The team devised a strategy to circumvent potential challenges in the project.

Diverge - separate from another route, especially a main one, and go in a different direction.

Example sentence: The opinions of the committee members began to diverge as the discussion continued.

Elicit - evoke or draw out (a response, answer, or fact) from someone in reaction to one's own actions or questions.

Example sentence: The teacher's question was designed to elicit thoughtful responses from the students.

Immutable - unchanging over time; unalterable.

Example sentence: The laws of physics are considered immutable in certain contexts.

Reiterate - say something again or a number of times, typically for emphasis or clarity.

Example sentence: The speaker took a moment to reiterate the main points of the presentation.

Construe - interpret (a word or action) in a particular way.

Example sentence: The lawyer argued that the contract could be construed in different ways.

Equitable - fair and impartial; just and right.

Example sentence: The distribution of resources should be equitable to ensure social justice.

Exacerbate - make (a problem, bad situation, or negative feeling) worse.

Example sentence: Ignoring the issue will only exacerbate the problem in the long run.

Disseminate - spread or disperse (something, especially information) widely.

Example sentence: The goal is to disseminate knowledge to a broad audience through educational programs.

Endorse - declare one's public approval or support of.

Example sentence: The celebrity endorsed the new product in a television commercial.

Ubiquitous - present, appearing, or found everywhere. Example sentence: In the modern world, smartphones have become ubiquitous.

Scrutinize - examine or inspect closely and thoroughly. Example sentence: The detective scrutinized the crime scene for any potential clues.

Proliferate - increase rapidly in numbers; multiply. Example sentence: The use of social media has caused information to proliferate at an unprecedented rate.

Perpetuate - make (something, typically an undesirable situation or an unfounded belief) continue indefinitely. Example sentence: The outdated policies only serve to perpetuate inequality.

Cognizant - having knowledge or awareness. Example sentence: Employees need to be cognizant of the company's policies and procedures.

Ambiguous - open to more than one interpretation; having a double meaning. Example sentence: The ambiguous statement led to confusion among the audience.

Mundane - lacking interest or excitement; dull. Example sentence: The daily routine became mundane, and the workers sought variety.

Adhere - stick fast to (a surface or substance); believe in and follow the practices of. Example sentence: It is important to adhere to ethical principles in professional conduct.

Egregious: - Outstandingly bad or shocking.

Example sentence: The company's egregious disregard for environmental regulations led to severe consequences and public outcry.

Viable - capable of working successfully; feasible. Example sentence: The project proposal outlined a viable plan for sustainable energy.

Ubiquity - the fact of appearing everywhere or of being very common. Example sentence: The ubiquity of smartphones has transformed the way people communicate.

Refute - prove (a statement or theory) to be wrong or false; disprove. Example sentence: The scientist presented evidence to refute the hypothesis.

Inherent - existing in something as a permanent, essential, or characteristic attribute. Example sentence: The risks were inherent in the nature of the experimental procedure.

Dichotomy - a division or contrast between two things that are or are represented as being opposed or entirely different. Example sentence: The discussion revealed a dichotomy in opinions about the proposed policy.

Exemplify - be a typical example of. Example sentence: The student's success exemplifies the benefits of hard work and dedication.

Connotation - an idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning. Example sentence: The word "home" has positive connotations of warmth and comfort.

Facilitate - make (an action or process) easy or easier. Example sentence: The new software is designed to facilitate data analysis.

Pontificate: - To express one's opinions in a pompous and dogmatic way.

Example sentence: During the meeting, the manager tended to pontificate on various topics without considering others' perspectives.

Elaborate: - To provide more details or information; to expand on a topic.

Example sentence: The speaker was asked to elaborate on the key findings of the research study, providing a more in-depth understanding for the audience.

Pragmatic - dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations.

Example sentence: The manager took a pragmatic approach to solve the immediate issues in the project.

Antithesis - a person or thing that is the direct opposite of someone or something else. Example sentence: The character of Dr. Jekyll is the antithesis of Mr. Hyde in the novel.

Resilient - able to withstand or recover quickly from difficult conditions. Example sentence: The community demonstrated resilient spirit in rebuilding after the natural disaster.

Reconcile - restore friendly relations between. Example sentence: The mediator helped to reconcile the conflicting parties and find common ground.

Innovate - make changes in something established, especially by introducing new methods or ideas. Example sentence: The company aims to innovate its products to stay competitive in the market.

Reiterate - say something again or a number of times, typically for emphasis or clarity. Example sentence: The speaker took a moment to reiterate the importance of the key points.

Ingenious - Clever, original, and inventive.

Example sentence: The engineer devised an ingenious solution to the complex problem, saving both time and resources in the process.

Ephemeral - lasting for a very short time. Example sentence: The beauty of the cherry blossoms is ephemeral, lasting only a few weeks each spring.

Resilience - the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties; toughness. Example sentence: The resilience of the community was evident in its ability to bounce back after the crisis.

Renege: - To go back on a promise, commitment, or agreement.

Example sentence: The company decided to renege on its initial offer, leaving the employees feeling betrayed.

Discern - perceive or recognize (something). Example sentence: It takes time to discern the subtle differences between the two concepts.

Revoke - officially cancel (a decree, decision, or promise). Example sentence: The board decided to revoke the decision due to new information.

Pertinent - relevant or applicable to a particular matter. Example sentence: Make sure to include only pertinent information in your report.

Pervasive - spreading widely throughout an area or a group of people. Example sentence: The influence of technology is pervasive in today's society.

Ambivalent - having mixed feelings or contradictory ideas about something or someone. Example sentence: The student was ambivalent about choosing a major, as both options seemed appealing.

Converge - come together from different directions so as eventually to meet. Example sentence: The opinions of the team members began to converge during the brainstorming session.

Resonate - produce or be filled with a deep, full, reverberating sound. Example sentence: The speaker's words resonated with the audience, leaving a lasting impression.

Catalyst - a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change. Example sentence: The new policy acted as a catalyst for positive changes in the workplace.

Equivocate - use ambiguous language so as to conceal the truth or avoid committing oneself. Example sentence: The politician tried to equivocate when asked about the controversial issue.

Ponder - think about (something) carefully, especially before making a decision or reaching a conclusion. Example sentence: Take time to ponder the implications of your choices before deciding.

Debilitate - make (someone) very weak and infirm. Example sentence: The prolonged illness began to debilitate the patient's strength and energy.

Admonish - warn or reprimand someone firmly.

Example sentence: The teacher had to admonish the students for not following the classroom rules.

Voracious - Having an eager and insatiable appetite for something, usually knowledge or information.

Example sentence: The voracious reader devoured the entire book series in just a few days.

Vex - To annoy, frustrate, or provoke someone.

Example sentence: The difficult puzzle began to vex the students after hours of unsuccessful attempts.

Vicarious - Experienced through the feelings or actions of another person.

Example sentence: Reading about the character's adventures allowed the reader to experience a vicarious thrill.

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